Daily Review and Checking Homework
Checking homework [routines for students to check each otherís papers]
Reteaching when necessary
Reviewing relevant past learning [may include questioning]
Review prerequisite skills [if applicable]
Provide short statement of objectives
Provide overview and structuring
Proceed in small steps but at a rapid pace
Intersperse questions within the demonstration to check for
Highlight main points
Provide sufficient illustrations and concrete examples
Provide demonstrations and models
When necessary, give detailed and redundant instructions and examples
Initial student practice takes place with teacher guidance
High frequency of questions and overt student practice [from teacher
Questions are directly relevant to the new content or skill
Teacher checks for understanding [CFU] by evaluating student responses
During CFU teacher gives additional explanation, process feedback, or
repeats explanation Ė where necessary
All students have a chance to respond and receive feedback; teacher
ensures that all students participate
Prompts are provided during guided practice [where appropriate]
Initial student practice is sufficient so that students can work
Guided practice continues until students are firm
Guided practice is continued [usually] until a success rate of 80% is
Quick, firm, and correct responses can be followed by another question
or a short acknowledgment of correctness [i.e., "Thatís right"].
Hesitant correct answers might be followed by process feedback [i.e.,
"Yes, Linda, thatís right because ..."].
Student errors indicate a need for more practice.
Monitor students for systematic errors.
Try to obtain a substantive response to each question.
Corrections can include sustaining feedback [i.e., simplifying the
question, giving clues], explaining or reviewing steps, giving process
feedback, or reteaching the last steps.
Try to elicit an improved response when the first one is incorrect.
Guided practice and corrections continue until the teacher feels that
the group can meet the objectives of the lesson.
Praise should be used in moderation, and specific praise is more
effective than general praise.
5. Independent Practice [Seatwork]
Practice is directly relevant to skills/contents taught
Practice to overlearning
Practice until responses are firm, quick, and automatic
Ninety-five percent correct rate during independent practice
Students alerted that seatwork will be checked
Students held accountable for seatwork
Actively supervise students, when possible
Weekly and Monthly Reviews
Systematic review of previously learned material
Include review in homework
Reteaching of material missed in tests
Teaching toward an objective
The objective is at the right level of difficulty and the
objective and the activities are appropriate to the learners: not already
attained nor are the prerequisites lacking - task analysis for critical
aspects. Objective and teaching and monitored and adjusted to provide maximum
Purpose and relevancy of the content are made clear to the
A desirable organization pattern is followed.
Teacher uses modelling techniques when appropriate.
Guided practice is appropriately employed.
Materials, activities, and media are congruent [aligned]
with the objectives] and with the levels of the learners.
The principles of learning are effectively employed:
Progress toward the objectives] is made.
Extension/Remediation are offered as appropriate.
Meaning is focussed on throughout.
Instructor Behaviour Relevant to Student Learning
clarity of presentation
variability of learning activities
directness and enthusiasm
task-oriented or business-like instructor behaviour
use of positive, constructive criticism
teacherís acknowledgement and encouragement of student
student opportunity to use a variety of types of prompting
presenting information or demonstrating processes
use of structured comments at the beginning of and during a
animating or inspiring attention and commitment
raising relevant questions, developing habits of
clarifying difficulties or obscurities
drawing parallels or finding relationships
expressing agreement and support
evaluating or developing self-evaluation